Home > adult learning > adult learning articles > physician learning articles > adult learning books



image

Adult Learning Articles

Adult Learning:
  • Adult Learning: An Overview.
  • Adult Learning Principles.
  • Principles Of Adult Learning.
  • How Adults Learn.
  • Teaching Adults: Is It Different?
  • 30 Things We Know For Sure About Adult Learning.
  • The Political Construction of Adult Education.
  • Adult Learning Styles
  • Andragogy + Pedagogy
  • From Andragogy to Heutagogy.


  • Adult Learning Online
  • Lessons Learned from Online Graduate Students.
  • Patterns in Adult Learning: Implications for Traditional and Online Learning
  • Adult Learning Online




  • Adult Learning:


    Adult Learning: An Overview.
    By Stephen Brookfield
    Introduction
    Adult learning is frequently spoken of by adult educators as if it were a discretely separate domain, having little connection to learning in childhood or adolescence. This chapter will examine critically this claim by exploring four major research areas (self-directed learning, critical reflection, experiential learning and learning to learn) each of which have been proposed as representing unique and exclusive adult learning processes. Go to article
    Top



    Adult Learning Principles.
    By The Training Post
    Introduction
    Adult Learning Principles are Essential: Instruction should be student-centered while focusing on the goals of the individual students. These principles suggest a learning environment that focuses on the student's personal goals, builds on previous life experiences and promotes positive self-esteem and self-worth. Adult students are treated as active participants. Go to article
    Top



    Principles Of Adult Learning.
    By Stephen Lieb
    Introduction
    Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Compared to children and teens, adults have special needs and requirements as learners. Despite the apparent truth, adult learning is a relatively new area of study. The field of adult learning was pioneered by Malcom Knowles. He identified the following characteristics of adult learners:... Go to article
    Top



    How Adults Learn.
    By Marcia L. Conner
    Overview of Adult Learning Theory
    Learning can be defined formally as the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills. In contrast, memory can define the capacity of storing, retrieving, and acting on that knowledge. Learning helps us move from novices to experts and allows us to gain new knowledge and abilities... Go to article
    Top



    Teaching Adults: Is It Different?
    By Susan Imel
    Introduction
    The adult education literature generally supports the idea that teaching adults should be approached in a different way than teaching children and adolescents, groups sometimes referred to as pre-adults. The assumption that teachers of adults should use a style of teaching different from that used with pre-adults is based on "informed professional opinion; philosophical assumptions associated with humanistic psychology and progressive education; and a growing body of research and theory on adult learning, development, and socialization" (Beder and Darkenwald 1982, p. 143). Following a discussion of the major model underlying this assumption, this ERIC Digest examines research that investigates differences in these teaching styles and suggests considerations Go to article
    Top



    30 Things We Know For Sure About Adult Learning.
    By Susan and Ron Zemke
    Introduction
    A variety of sources provides us with a body of fairly reliable knowledge about adult learning. This knowledge might be divided into three basic divisions: things we know about adult learners and their motivation, things we know about designing curriculum for adults, and things we know about working with adults in the classroom. Go to article
    Top



    The Political Construction of Adult Education.
    By Ian Baptiste & Tom Heaney
    Introduction
    This paper both examines and exemplifies the process through which the field of adult ed ucation has been and is being constructed. The authors seek to meet the challenge set forth by Derek Briton in The Modern Practice of Adult Education: A Postmodern Critique to "embrace the tension between a refusal to close the field, to police it and, at the same time, a determination to stake out some positions within it and argue for them." (1996, pg. 117) Go to article
    Top



    Adult Learning Styles
    By Jessica Blackmore
    Introduction
    The education literature suggests that students who are actively engaged in the learning process will be more likely to achieve success (Dewar 1995; Hartman 1995, Leadership Project 1995). Once students are actively engaged in their own learning process they begin to feel empowered and their personal achievement and self-direction levels rise.

    A key to getting (and keeping) students actively involved in learning lies in understanding learning style preferences, which can positively or negatively influence a student's performance (Birkey & Rodman 1995; Dewar 1995; Hartman 1995). It has also been shown that adjusting teaching materials to meet the needs of a variety of learning styles benefits all students (Agogino & Hsi 1995; Kramer-Koehler, Tooney & Beke 1995).

    Schroeder (1996) points out that the "typical" student learning style profile is changing on campuses today and there is a much greater variation in the range of learning style preferences to be considered. Therefore it would be wise to understand what learning style preferences are, and how to address them when preparing instructional materials for adults. Go to article
    Top



    Andragogy + Pedagogy
    By Marcia L. Conner
    Sample
    Andragogy, initially defined as "the art and science of helping adults learn," has taken on a broader meaning since Knowles' first edition. The term currently defines an alternative to pedagogy and refers to learner-focused education for people of all ages... Go to article
    Top



    From Andragogy to Heutagogy
    By Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon
    Abstract
    In something of a landmark for education Knowles (1970) suggested an important change in the way in which educational experiences for adults should be designed. The approach, known as andragogy, contrasts quite sharply with pedagogy which is the teaching of children. This paper suggests there is benefit in moving from andragogy towards truly self-determined learning. The concept of truly self-determined learning, called heutagogy, builds on humanistic theory and approaches to learning described in the 1950s. It is suggested that heutagogy is appropriate to the needs of learners in the twenty-first century, particularly in the development of individual capability. A number of implications of heutagogy for higher education and vocational education are discussed. Go to article
    Top


    Adult Learning Online:


    Lessons Learned from Online Graduate Students.
    By Barbara A. Frey, D.Ed.
    Introduction
    The Department of Library & Information Science (LIS) at the University of Pittsburgh offers both remote and not-so-remote learners with the opportunity to earn a masterís degree. Online technology makes it possible. The distance education program at the University of Pittsburgh began in 1970. Today, it includes primarily undergraduate courses in paper-based, interactive television, and online formats. An important component to most of the Universityís distance education courses is an on-campus experience which generally consists of 2 or 3 face-to-face workshops during the semester. The on-campus aspect of instruction has been shown to have a positive impact on learner satisfaction, learning, and retention. Until recently, there had not been graduate courses or a complete degree program offered via distance education. Go to article
    Top



    Adult Learning Theory: Implications for Distance Education.
    By Linda Jensen
    Introduction
    Adult learning, particularly technology-enhanced learning, is still in development stages. We are learning more about HOW we learn as we delve into new content areas themselves! What a great time we are in for becoming more of who we are on an individual level, as people, as professionals, as learners! Go to article

    Top



    Adult Learning Online
    By Tammy Dewar
    Introduction
    Covering online adult learning in a short article is a little like trying to see a city in a day - a whole lot of running around with brief, and hopefully meaningful, visits here and there. That being said, the focus here is to take the broad span of adult learning and apply it to an online environment. Ideally, I will reduce the "running around" and provide you with a few meaningful "visits" to adult learning in online environments.

    My searches on both the WWW and Proquest revealed little that was directly applicable to adult learning online. There is lots on adult learning generally (both online and print based) and a growing literature base on online education and web based training generally (again, online and print based), but little that linked the two in a meaningful way for people who are actually taking a course online. So what follows are my observations - first as an academic and practitioner in adult education, and second, as a learner and facilitator online since 1995.

    I view this course (as I do all of the courses I've facilitated) as a way to build the theory and practice in learning and facilitating online. We are pioneers in this area and can contribute a tremendous amount to future online learners! Through our discussions and your assignments, we can create a set of valuable resources and "publish them" on the net for others to see. This is probably one of the most exciting aspects of online education to me - it is relatively easy to create and share our knowledge as a class and leave a legacy for others! How often in traditional face to face classes have we been able to do this in a relatively easy way? Go to article

    Top









    image